At the heart of insomnia may be a physiological predisposition, psychogenic disorders, diseases of the nervous system and internal organs. Often insomnia occurs in people suffering from neuroses and neurosis-like conditions: psychosis, depression, panic disorders, etc. Patients with somatic diseases that cause night pain, shortness of breath, heart pain, respiratory disorders (arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, pleurisy, pneumonia, chronic pain, etc.). Sleep disorders can accompany organic lesions of the central nervous system (stroke, schizophrenia, brain tumors, parkinsonism, epilepsy, hyperkinetic syndromes); pathology of the peripheral nervous system.
Predisposing factors also influence the development of sleep disorders, namely: life in a megacity; frequent change of time zones; long-term use of psychotropic drugs; drinking alcohol; constant intake of caffeinated drinks; shift work and other occupational hazards (noise, vibration, toxic compounds); violation of sleep hygiene.
The pathogenesis of insomnia is not fully understood, but scientific research and experiments in the field of neurology have shown that patients have the same increased brain activity in sleep, as well as when awake (this is indicated by a high level of beta waves); an increased level of hormones at night (cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone) and a high level of metabolism.
Classification of insomnia
By the duration of the course of insomnia is divided into:
- Transit, with a duration of not more than a few nights
- Short-term (from several days to weeks)
- Chronic (from three weeks or more)
Also, insomnia is distinguished by physiological (situational) and constant (having a permanent character). By origin, distinguish primary insomnia arising from personal or idiopathic (unclear) causes, and secondary, arising on the background or as a result of psychological, somatic and other pathologies.
In terms of the severity of clinical symptoms of insomnia is:
- Light degree (mild) – rare episodes of sleep disturbance
- Of moderate severity – clinical manifestations are moderately expressed
- Severe – sleep disorders are observed every night and have a significant effect in daily life.