They are divided into traumatic and pathological (spontaneous, spontaneous in the presence of a tumor, inflammatory processes). Fractures of facial bones in peacetime make up 3.8% of all fractures.
Classification of bone fractures
The classification of injuries of the maxillofacial region was developed by the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery with Dentistry of the Military Medical Academy. S. M. Kirov and approved by the problem committee of the Scientific Council for Dentistry AMS (1984).
I. Mechanical damage to the upper, middle, lower and lateral zones of the face.
1. By location:
A. Soft tissue injuries with damage:
b) salivary glands
c) large nerves
d) large vessels. B. Bone injuries:
a) the lower jaw
b) the upper jaw
c) the zygomatic bones
d) the nasal bones
e) two or more bones.
2. By the nature of the wound: through, blind, tangent; penetrating into the oral cavity, not penetrating into the oral cavity; penetrating the maxillary sinuses and nasal cavity.
3. According to the damage mechanism:
A. Gunshot: bullet, fragmentation, ball, swept elements.
II. Combined lesions . III . Burns IV . Frostbite. Facial lesions can be isolated single, isolated multiple; combined isolated (accompanying and leading), combined multiple (accompanying and leading). Damage to one anatomical area is an isolated damage; when injuring two or more anatomical areas, they speak of combined damage. Combined damage occurs as a result of exposure to various damaging factors (mechanical, gunshot injury, burns and other ratios of individual factors). By the nature of the damage, they are distinguished: direct (at the place of application of the impact force), indirect and mixed; complete and incomplete; single, double, multiple; isolated and combined; transverse, longitudinal, oblique, perforated, arched, zigzag; impacted, krupnooskolchatye and melkooskolchatye. Fractures accompanied by damage to the skin and mucous membrane of the oral cavity, nose are called open (all fractures within the dentition). Fractures without damage to soft tissues are considered to be closed. Penetrating injuries are those in which the wound is connected to the oral cavity, nose, sinuses, pharynx, trachea. The heterogeneity of the structure of the facial skeleton creates the conditions for the formation of areas of least bone resistance (the line of greatest weakness), in the region of which typical fracture lines of the upper and lower jaw most often pass.