The main parameters that determine your training program are: age, weight-to-height ratio, genetic type, presence of injuries and contraindications.
Age is one of the most accurate criteria for choosing a program. Between the ages of 15 and 18, the foundation is laid for the figure for the rest of his life. Training at this age gives the most consistent results. The maximum weights can be lifted only after 30, and after 40 maximum attention should be paid to warming up the joints and ligaments. Weight is the most imprecise parameter. Fat is much lighter than muscle tissue. The question is in what proportion are they in your body? If you have a lack of physique, such as a slouch. First of all, straighten it by pumping your back on a horizontal bar and simulators. Otherwise, the general growth of the muscles, especially the pectoral ones, will bulge your stoop even more. Knowledge of anatomy is very helpful in training. It is worth changing the angle of the bench, or the width and shape of the grip, or the position of the elbows, as the exercise will be directed to completely different muscles. Often, the trajectory of the projectile or the dynamics of the position of the hands matters, as in the Arnold press. Knowledge of such nuances will help to avoid monotony, expand the quality and range of training, and feel the muscle being worked out. (Supination – turning the hand outward while lifting the biceps.) Muscles of different sizes require a different approach: The press is pumped up to 2 times a day, 15-20 repetitions, each time until complete exhaustion.
Arm and chest muscles for 8-12 repetitions, gradually increasing the maximum weights. The muscles of the legs are brought to exhaustion only in the last set (approach) and give a week of rest. Warm up and cool down. Joints, especially elbows, can be easily injured if you don’t stretch and warm up enough. 10-15 minutes of jogging and gymnastics are required at the beginning of classes. Any exercise begins with a low weight and is gradually brought to the worker. If your muscles hurt from the last workout, don’t wait, feel free to go to a new one. The pain will go away faster. The cool down includes any active cardio (running, exercise bike, skipping rope, etc.) lasts 10-20 minutes. It burns fat well, flushes tired muscles with blood (it will hurt less), and soothes the psyche. For me personally, leg stretching shows just record results precisely in the hitch after training the leg muscles. Anaerobic and aerobic training Az and Buki of modern sports. Our body has two main sources of energy for muscles: glycogen in muscles and liver, and subcutaneous fat. Have you ever run more than a kilometer? At first you run lightly, then you start to get tired, and somewhere after the “second wind” opens. We have just described the process of transition from anaerobic to aerobic activity. First, glycogen was consumed, then it ran out and the body switched to a reserve tank of the fat layer. It is important for us to remember that anaerobic exercise builds muscle, and aerobic exercise burns excess fat. Interval aerobics or spinning – the most effective way of “fat burning” is a series of short, about 1 minute, but very powerful loads (for example, spin the pedals of an exercise bike at a crazy pace), interspersed with minute intervals of a moderate pace. The best time to spin is in the morning on an empty stomach or right after a strength workout. The total spinning time is 20-30 minutes. Fast and Slow Fibers Muscles are made up of two types of fibers. The “fast” fibers are called force fibers. They are responsible for jerking weights. “Slow” fibers are called endurance fibers, they show themselves in such loads as marathon running. The main increase in muscle mass is provided by “fast” fibers. Core and dependent muscles The largest and most powerful muscles in our body are the muscles of the legs. In second place are the muscles of the back.
The growth of these muscle groups determines the body weight, and the total body weight determines the potential for small muscle growth. You can only perform basic exercises such as deadlift and bench press – all muscle groups will grow. Therefore, it is useless to strain while swinging the biceps without first pumping the back and legs. Muscles grow when they are torn from tension. In any exercise, only 15% of the entire working muscle is involved. At peak loads, the thinnest fibers break and the overcompensation mechanism comes into play. More fibers are recovered than they were before the break. This is the growth mechanism. The closer you get to the tipping point, the better the result will be. Remember: it is not the weight of the weights that grows muscles, but the training regime! Stretch to upload. The problem of breaking the fibers can be solved not only by increasing the load, but also by expanding the range of motion. Pre-stretched muscles break more easily. In addition, the amplitude often adds additional muscle groups to the work, which will have a positive effect on the shape of the relief. But, don’t be confused with “stretching” the tendons and joints. Do not sit on a split before squats with a barbell, the legs will lose 10-15% of their strength. It will be more correct, in this case, to squat first, and then stretch. Stretching exercises after strength exercises facilitate muscle growth, as a result, build strength. Raise quickly and lower slowly. Why are runners’ calves dry, while skaters are hefty? It all depends on the type of load.
Runners dry out their legs with prolonged and even exercise, while skaters swing with short but very powerful jerks, interspersed with rest periods. Therefore, lift the weight with a jerk, and try to lower it slowly, emotionally. Split or split training gives your body an optimal load-rest regimen. The split principle is to work out only 1-2 muscles each workout. Let’s say one workout is legs; the second is the back and shoulders; the third is the chest and arms, etc. This allows the entire body to be trained intensively in a circle while giving each muscle plenty of time to rest. Superset is a sequential study of antagonist muscles (flexor-extensor). Biceps – triceps, quadriceps – hamstrings, abs – lumbar muscles. When we swing the triceps, the biceps are also warmed up and filled with blood. Therefore, he is already ready to take on the load. Combining two exercises in a row on both muscles will give a greater effect than training them separately. In addition, pumping only one antagonist deforms the skeleton. Combined set – two exercises on one muscle with a pause of no more than 30 seconds; Triset – 3 exercises in a row for one muscle group; Pyramid – the exercise starts with a low weight and in a few sets is brought to a record. Each preliminary set is not brought to failure, due to this, the forces only come. The drop set is the Pyramid in the opposite direction. Bringing “to failure”, then reducing the working weight and again bringing “to failure”. Isolation exercises – These exercises do not build muscle, they are auxiliary to basic exercises.
The task of isolated exercises is to punctuate a certain muscle group (preliminary exhaustion) in order to take it out of the game and make it possible to fully pump the neighboring muscles. Negatives are a special, extremely intense way of increasing volumes. It uses prohibitive weights and no lifts at all. The previously lifted weight is slowly lowered. For example, in the bench press in the Smith machine, your partner helps you raise the bar, but you must lower it slowly and with only one hand. Negatives require the obligatory help of a partner. Pumping You cut the chicken, didn’t you? Remember how each muscle is wrapped in a stocking of connective fibers ( fascia ). It tightens the muscle and prevents it from increasing in volume. However, this stocking is elastic and can be “stretched” by pumping the maximum amount of blood into the muscle. The muscles are called the second heart. It is only necessary to correctly direct the work of this “heart”. It happened to you at the end of a workout to “hammer” your biceps to a stone hardness – this is pumping. Cyclic loads are used for targeted growth of a specific muscle group. These are cycles of 2-3 weeks of extreme base loads separated by 1-2 weeks of isolation pumping exercises. “Cheating” Cheating in bodybuilding refers to a type of violation of the technique of performing an exercise, which allows you to do 1-3 more repetitions.
This can be the help of a partner in the weakest zone of the bench press amplitude, or a swing movement, or connection to the work of other muscle groups. Forced repetition when pumping biceps is performed using the free hand. Partial rep is a way to do more rows or presses by lowering the amplitude. Cheating is a way to overcome a psychological barrier, an opportunity to take another half step forward. A separate type of cheating can be considered the execution of “failure” sets without respite, when you actually performed several sets to failure, but they practically merge into one continuous one. Small muscles, ligaments and joints There are no trifles in matters of your health. You cannot “hang” powerful muscles on a weak skeleton. Strength exercises on an unstable basis, such as a Swiss ball, are used to strengthen the ligaments and small muscles (balance muscles). In addition, developing small muscles often helps to emphasize major muscle groups more strongly.