Meningioma of the head and neck (extracranial) is localized in the maxillary fossa (in the posterolateral parapharyngeal space) in the form of a densely elastic node and has pharyngeal and neurological symptoms. Microscopically, it has the structure of psammomatous meningioma , is represented by many psammological bodies located at different distances from each other. Between them, small tumor cells with round or rod-shaped nuclei and fields of hyalinized connective tissue are found. Pharyngeal symptoms are represented by deformation of the lateral wall of the oropharynx behind the posterior palatine arch, a sensation of a foreign body. Neurological symptoms associated with the defeat of IX-XII pairs of cranial nerves and the sympathetic nerve trunk. Treatment is surgical, in inoperable cases, radiation therapy is prescribed with a palliative purpose.
Rhabdomyoma of the head and neck
Rhabdomyoma of the head and neck is a mature benign tumor that develops from the striated muscle tissue. Most often found in the tongue, muscles of the pharynx and soft palate. The tumor has clear contours, in the capsule, is located in the thickness of the muscles, has a slow growth rate. When localized in the tongue – it shifts well, if it develops between the muscles of the soft palate – the mobility is limited. Microscopically, cells resemble embryonic muscle fibers and myoblasts. The stroma of the tumor forms a gentle argyrophil network. The treatment is surgical.
There is an inclined position of the head in the sore direction with the face turning to a healthy and elevated position of the shoulder girdle as a result of contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
Etiology of muscle torticollis
. Changes in this muscle are predominantly due to birth trauma as a result of pressure or tension or a congenital malformation. A true developmental defect is indicated by the fact that, with muscle crank , other developmental anomalies (clubfoot, calcaneus, etc.) or even a decrease in intelligence can also occur.
Clinical Muscle Torticollis Clinic
This pathology is a consequence of dysfunction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, which is palpated in the form of a dense cord and sharply protrudes on the relief of the neck. Muscle tension increases when you try to turn your head in the direction opposite to its pull. Asymmetry of the face, scoliosis of the cervical spine with anti- curvature in the thoracic region can gradually develop .
Treatment of muscle torticollis
Treatment should begin immediately after the detection of this pathology. The child should lie in bed with the sick side facing the light and other environmental irritants so that he is forced to oppose contracture. In resistant cases, corrective dressings, bandages, cribs are used. From about the 4th month of a child’s life, exercise therapy exercises are shown. If improvement does not occur, and even there is a threat of asymmetry of the face or scoliosis, then surgical treatment is necessary (dissection at the site of attachment of the sternocleidomastoid muscle), after which the neck is fixed in the corrected position using a plaster bandage such as a “tiara”