The hypothesis that certain peptides may play a key role in the p e sleep gulyatsii, originated in the late 70s -. The beginning of the 80s, when the group researches and teley US, who took Playback of conduct experiments old Pieroni, succeeded in isolating 30 mg “substance Call s vayuschego dream” from 14 thousand rabbit brains and 4 tonnes of human urine. This substance turned out to be muramyl peptide. These peptides are synthesized enzymatically in bacterial cells and are monomial p nye “building blocks” forming peptidoglycan – frame Cleto h hydrochloric bacteria wall. In mammals, muramyl peptides singing inare caused by the vital activity of intestinal bacteria or in the event of infection; while they are secreted by blood phagocytes during the absorption of bacteria. Due to some of the features of the structure of muramyl peptides are extremely resistant to degradation in the body of mammals th boiling. They have the ability to penetrate into the brain and have powerful effects on various processes of the body in very small doses. These effects can be divided into two types: short-term and long-term. The latter, lasting for days and weeks, are associated with the development of immunity (we will not affect them in this article). As for Short time ie variables, the actual physiological processes whose duration and h measured in hours, the main ones are the effects on sleep – wakefulness and body temperature.
We conducted a study of the impact of several natural Moore and mil-peptides and their synthetic derivatives as well as fragments (all e societies were synthesized TM Andronova et al in Bioorganic Chemistry Institute. Shemyakin and YA Ovchinnikov, RAS, Moscow) in experiments on rabbits and discovered amazing things. It turned out that the natural muramyl peptides are the so-called parenteral centuries e deniyah (in blood or in the brain) is already in minute doses (share microg m ma) cause disruption of sleep patterns (increase of slow and inhibit e of the paradoxical phase), a sharp rise in temperature body. When dressing s There are strong toxic effects in animals, animals die. However, when administered orally (in the stomach) nothing like obs w given: rather large doses (of a milligram) for single and repeated administration causes an increase in slow-wave phase without N and Rushen sleep patterns; body temperature does not rise, toxic e f defects do not occur. These results provide a basis for the assumption that the “peptides sleep” of pathogenic microbes play a critical role in the emergence of a well-known in the medical symptoms of a number of bact e ‘an infections (hypersomnia, sleep patterns, l and the fever). On the other hand, the same muramyl peptides that enter the body from the intestine as a result of vital activity of “useful” bact e ry, may contribute to the regulation of normal sleep. These facts are important for medicine, since muramyl peptides have already begun to be used in oncology and immunology as medicines, and physicians need to be aware of their effect on patient sleep.
The idea that substances produced by normal intestinal bacteria, m on the gut to influence sleep, appears at first sight as n e It is expected, it was first put forward another great Mechnikov almost a hundred years ago and is fully consistent with the ideas to develop the largest specialist in the field of physiology of digestion, now resting th nym academician . In recent years, significant progress in the study of a complex cascade of biochemical reactions, from m to cop hit muramyl peptide in the brain prior to exposure to the mechanisms of p e gulyatsii sleep. In these various stages involved a number of regulative p Sub- stances of the body with different chemical nature. A detailed description of such processes is beyond the scope of this article. On d Nako what is the cause of the differences and the effects of oral Parent e The introduction of muramyl peptides remains unknown.