Rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck is a dense, encapsulated, grayish-pink malignant tumor in the section. It is localized more often in the sternocleidomastoid muscle, on the back of the neck and in the supraclavicular region. Clinically, the tumor has a progressive growth rate with infiltration of surrounding tissues. Metastases to regional lymph nodes are detected in 15% of cases, distant (usually to the lungs) – in 25%. Treatment – combined or complex. Schemes of chemotherapy : CyVADic , CyVADact , Hazor with platinum derivatives.
Lymphangioma of the head and neck
Lymphangioma of the head and neck is a benign tumor originating from the lymph nodes, sometimes called a lymphatic cyst. Histogenetically, these tumors are associated with malformations of the lymphatic system, with a delay in its development, which leads to the appearance of kyetosis in the neck, especially often in children. Lymphangiomas of the neck , like hemangiomas , in some cases can be combined with multiple lesions, in particular, with angiomatosis of bones. In this regard, in cases of neck lymphangioma , an x-ray examination of the bone of the facial skeleton should be carried out. Lymphangiomas of the neck can spread in • rsostenium – the cervical -mediastinal form. The treatment is surgical.
Lipoma of the head and neck
Lipoma of the head and neck is a benign tumor of adipose tissue, localized in various parts of the body, in particular, on the neck. A neoplasm of soft elastic consistency, with a poorly expressed capsule and sometimes with fuzzy borders. On a section of a whitish-yellowish hue, it consists of lobules separated by connective tissue jumpers. The treatment is surgical.
Chondrosarcoma of the head and neck
Chondrosarcoma of the head and neck – is rare, is represented by fairly outlined and encapsulated nodes. The surface of the tumor is tuberous. The consistency is uneven, as along with dense areas there are softening areas. The section is grayish-white in color with stripes filled with mucus-like liquid. Microscopically heterogeneous, cartilage elements with atypia prevail in the form of an uneven distribution of chondroblasts . Clinically – long before the appearance of the tumor, pain and neurological disorders are noted. The tumor growth rate is progressive or rapid. It has a high percentage of relapses (up to 50%). Metastases are detected in 10-12% of cases. Surgical treatment.
Angiosarcomas of the head and neck
Angiosarcomas of the head and neck are vascular malignant tumors that develop from altered smooth muscle vascular adventitia cells. Varieties of angiosarcomas are malignant forms of hemangiopericytoma and hemangioendotheliomas . It is possible to distinguish these forms only with histological examination. A characteristic feature of angiosarcomas is the rapid growth rate, early germination of neighboring anatomical structures. MRI on the neck there is a compression syndrome due to compression of the trachea, larynx, esophagus. Angiosarcomas have a high relapse rate (up to 80%). Regional metastases are detected in 28-30% of cases, distant – and 15%. Treatment – combined or complex. Circuit used polychemotherapy : CyVADic , Cyvadact , Asorey with platinum derivatives.
Sympathogonyoma of the head and neck
Sympatogonioma of the head and neck ( neuroblastoma ) is an immature tumor of the sympathetic nervous system. The nature of the structure resembles sarcoma and consists of single encapsulated or unencapsulated nodes. Streets of a young age are observed, in children more often at the age of 2-5 years. The tumor is prone to rapid growth, early metastasis (to the lymph nodes, liver, skull bones, lungs). In children, the tendency to rapid growth and metastasis is less pronounced. Surgical treatment.