Addiction (from the Greek.harkosis – numbness and mania – insanity) – a pronounced painful attraction and addiction to one or more narcotic substances, acting mainly on the nervous system and causing a person in small doses of euphoria – a false sense of “well-being”, fun, pleasant sedation or, conversely, excitement; some drugs also cause illusions, sometimes hallucinations. In large doses, drugs cause states of severe intoxication, stupor, narcotic sleep, acute poisoning. Addiction develops as a result of abuse of opium and its derivatives (morphine, heroin, dionine, promedol, codeine, etc.), alcohol, ether, chloral hydrate, some sleeping pills (veronal, luminal, barbamil, etc.), LSD, amphitamine, ecstasy, cannabis cannabis preparations (extract of Indian hemp, hash, shira, anasha, etc.), cocaine, various substances that stimulate the nervous system (caffeine, betel nut, phenamine, etc.), tobacco (nicotine).
Addiction is characterized by the need for a constant increase in the dose of the drug, because previous quantities cease to have an effect: for example, morphinists, usually starting with a relatively harmless dose of 0.01 g of morphine, subsequently reach 0.5-0.8 g, that is, they take huge, obviously harmful, doses of the drug.
The appearance of the so-called abstinence is also typical , that is, a condition that develops in the absence of the usual poison and is hard to perceive by an addict, especially with opium-morphine addiction. At the same time, in the end, a person strives for a drug no longer to get a pleasant state of health, which morphine no longer delivers, but to get rid of the phenomena of abstinence – painful state of health, heavy mood, pains in the whole body, unaccountable fears, insomnia. Phenomenon of withdrawal symptoms, in a weaker form, is also present in chronic alcoholism (the so-called hangover states) and even in nicotinism.
With prolonged drug use, symptoms of chronic poisoning of the body with damage to the central nervous system and internal organs usually develop. On the part of the psyche and behavior, this is expressed in instability of mood (irritability, longing, apathy), in a decrease in mental abilities (memory, attention, thinking). The circle of interests is narrowing, the will and sense of duty are weakening, the ability to work is declining, and sometimes completely disappearing; people are morally degraded, sometimes reaching the point of crime. From the side of internal organs, dysfunctions of the cardiovascular system, the digestive tract (especially the liver), metabolism, and sexual activity are observed. Premature decrepitude and exhaustion develops (cachexia).
In the true sense, it is necessary to distinguish from drug addiction a wide consumption of various narcotic substances, which is random in nature, taking only small doses. So, millions of people who drink in small doses, for example, alcoholic beverages, coca leaves, tobacco smokers, etc. can not be called drug addicts. However, such a “moderate” and sometimes far from harmless consumption is the main soil on which abuse and painful addiction develop , when without the usual drug the ability to normal sleep, appetite, communication with others, etc. is lost. There is no special type of people who are “predisposed” to Addiction, although not only external conditions, but also individual defects in a person’s character (increased suggestibility, carelessness, lack of physical or mental irritation, etc.) can play a secondary role in the occurrence of Addiction.
The fight against drug addiction is based on the creation of a high economic and cultural standard of living of the population and the growth of its consciousness, on the massive introduction of labor hygiene, on the wide comprehensive development of scientific interests, literature, art, sports. Along with these main ways of combating drug addiction, special health education and legislative restrictive measures are of particular importance.
Health workers should warn the public about the dangers of slow-moving addiction to the use of narcotic and aphrodisiacs. When using narcotic drugs (especially morphine drugs) for various chronic diseases, it must be remembered that Addiction is itself a serious disease.
DRUG TREATMENT .
- Treatment of patients with drug addiction should be carried out, as a rule, in a hospital with a strictly closed regimen.
- First of all, a gradual abolition of a drug is carried out, and then substitute drugs.
- Sleep treatment is used (5-10 days); detoxification measures are carried out , insulin treatment with the simultaneous administration of glucose, sodium chlorine, sodium thiosulfate, unitiol, hemodesis.
- It is necessary to stop the psychosis that may occur during withdrawal. You can also take sedatives – seduxen, phenozepam, radedorm. To support heart activity used caffeine-sodium benzoate 20%.
- Analgin, rheopyrin, tramal and diclofenac are prescribed as painkillers for pain during withdrawal .
- To restore metabolism, general strengthening agents, biogenic stimulants, vitamins are shown, physiotherapy, physiotherapy exercises, occupational therapy, and psychotherapy are also effective .
- Of great benefit is the treatment of suggestion, in particular hypnosis. The duration of treatment for drug addicts is from 1 to 6 months.
- It is advisable for each patient to conduct a course of treatment with an individual selection of therapeutic agents.
- After a course of treatment, further adaptive, physiological and rehabilitation measures, psycho-correction of personality, mood and will of the patient himself with the help of professionals and relatives are very important. Self-treatment at home is difficult and usually does not produce results.