A large variety and abundance SHOCK Niy cornea due to its location in the area of the opening the palpebral fissure, continuous contact with okra ronment, whereby it is subjected to the action of various factors (mechanical, physical chemistry iCal et al.). The generality and innervation of blood supply to other divisions of the eye (conjunctiva, sclera, choroid) promotes the cornea of pathological involvement in sky in the disease process these sections.
Inflammation ro govitsy microflora may cause conjunctival sac.
Corneal pathology may occur as vrozh dennyh abnormalities, inflammations, tumors, degenerations and dystrophies.
The normal cornea has the following properties: it is perfectly transparent, has a high gloss, sphere -parameter and specific surface (corresponding age) resolution. It has a high chuvstvitelnos Tew, has no blood vessels. In the pathology of these properties horns tzu lost.
ANOMALIES OF CORNEAL DEVELOPMENT.
Anomalies can be detected immediately after the birth of the baby.
These otno syatsya:
- (small cornea) – this is a decrease in the diameter of the cornea (normally in a newborn, it is 9 mm);
- ( Makrokornea , giant horns tsa) – increase of corneal diameter;
- keratoconus , keratoglobus – a change in the sphericity of the cornea; congenital opacities (decreased transparency) of the cornea.
These are inflammatory diseases of the cornea. The etiology of them is diverse. They have a number of characteristic clinical signs, detection of which will allow nurses timely diagnos ted keratitis, provide emergency first aid, provide treatment if necessary. Timeliness of mennosti detection and proper treatment depends on the outcome of keratitis, which often lead to loss of vision.
The main symptom of keratitis is the presence in the cornea of an inflammatory focus – infiltrate. Infiltrate may be single or multiple. Infiltrates can be localized in different parts of rho govitsy (center of the cornea – in an optical zone or at the periphery – the edge of the cornea) to be at a different depth (superficial, deep) have a different color, shape and size. Inflammation in the cornea causes the so-called corneal syndrome – a combination of symptoms :
- eye pain
- foreign body sensations in the eye,
- photophobia, lacrimation,
- blepharospasm and
- characteristic of inflamed Nia redness cornea of the eyeball as a crowning ka surrounding cornea (ciliary injection).
Inflammatory lesions in the cornea violated her transparent Nost, t. E. Causes clouding.
The outcome of inflammation ro govitsy scars often remain, which also reduces the transparency of the cornea.
Cicatricial clouding of the cornea is traces of inflammation and such patients do not require emergency care, and clouding of the cornea due to local inflammation – infiltration is an active process that can lead to various complications up to the death of the eye and requires urgent care for the patient. Nursing Dr. skiff must be able to distinguish between the corneal infiltrate the scar.
In case of infiltrate , the patient has corneal syndrome (pain, photophobia, lacrimation, blepharospasm, ciliary injection), which is enhanced by examination of the patient’s eye (the eye is “irritated”). The cornea at the site of the infiltrate loses its luster, the color of the infiltrate is grayish or yellow, its borders are fuzzy.
When rumen corneal corneal syndrome absent eye when viewed “spo Cohen,” cicatricial whitish turbidity, a brilliant, with Thu kimi boundaries. And infiltrate, and in the rumen cerned Viţu vessels may grow.
Types of keratitis.
Keratitis can be caused by external (exogenous) and internal (endogenous) factors.
Accordingly, they distinguish:
- exogenous and endogenous keratitis .
Exogenous keratitis can be caused by:
- effect on the cornea damaging factors (traumatic Kera Tita)
- infectious agents (bacterial, viral, fungal keratitis).
Eye injuries can damage the cornea. Superficial damage to the cornea – erosion – is also often accompanied by a feeling of a foreign body in the eye, photophobia, and lacrimation. The eye turns red (ciliary injection). To detect corneal erosion, a 1% fluorescein solution is instilled into the eye , which is washed off with a 1: 5000 furatsilin solution. The eroded surface of the cornea turns greenish. Corneal erosion must be treated, otherwise they will lead to corneal inflammation – keratitis.
- For 2-3 days, a 30% solution of sulfacyl sodium is prescribed 1 drop 4 times a day;
- For lower eyelid mortgages vayut 2 times a day an ointment with sulfanilamide preparation E, or antibiotics.
- To improve epithelization ro govitsy can be applied 1% solution of quinine hydrochloride and vitamin drops with riboflavin (1: 1000).
- Upon detection of a foreign body in the cornea (Sorin ka, thorn plants, and others.) It immediately must be removed, otherwise it will develop inflammation of the cornea.
Superficial foreign bodies can remove secondary medical work nicks, deep – opticians.
- After removal of foreign bodies from the cornea, the same treatment is prescribed as with corneal erosion.