ON WINTER HOLIDAYS NOT BEFORE GOING TO THE POLYCLINIC, and after them, even more so – a new working year begins with a lot of things to do. Because of this, many put off going to the doctor until the last, so as not to spoil the plans and moods for themselves and those close to them. However, such “concern” may turn out to be a disservice. For example, the symptoms of common poisoning and heart attack are often similar: nausea, vomiting, chest discomfort.
What problems are most often addressed to a doctor during and after a long vacation and how to solve them, we found out from experts: Candidate of Medical Sciences, a member of the European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery and Arthroscopy (ESSKA), orthopedic traumatologist Yuri Glazkov, maxillary – the facial surgeon Yaroslav Lavrentiev and the chief physician of the “Clinic of Doctor Shipkov” Vladimir Shipkov.
Hypothermia and frostbite
According to doctor Yuri Glazkov, not every organism is ready for long walks when there is a minus outside the window. Even if there is no wind outside and it is not too cold, it is worth dressing for the weather. At the same time, you do not need to give up thermal underwear, especially if you plan to go in for sports or other outdoor activities. Such equipment will help wick sweat from the surface of the skin, protecting the body from hypothermia. But drinking an alcoholic cocktail before going out into the cold is a bad idea: it “drowns out” the work of receptors that react to cold and dilates blood vessels. In this state, you can not feel the cold for a long time and not take measures against hypothermia.
Symptoms of hypothermia (that is, too low a body temperature) are shaking, chills, and pain in the fingers and toes. In case of hypothermia, experts advise to be in a heated room as soon as possible, change into warm dry clothes, restore blood circulation by rubbing your fingers and toes, and drink a cup of hot tea. Emergency medical attention should be sought if frostbite is suspected, when in the damaged areas the skin looks pale, loses sensitivity and becomes covered with bubbles with a clear liquid.
Poisoning and food allergies
We hope that there are no remnants of holiday dishes in your refrigerators – but the old New Year is on the nose, the celebration of which is associated with a new wave of ambulance calls. Digestive disorders are associated with overeating and poisoning with not the freshest foods, and the use of unusual seafood and tropical fruits often provokes an allergic reaction. In this case, the timely use of an antihistamine will help to save the situation – but you cannot wait to call the doctor, especially if the person’s condition begins to deteriorate, for example, the body temperature has increased, the area of spread of the rash has increased, there is swelling in the face or neck, or blood pressure has dropped.
The main danger when drinking alcohol is poisoning with surrogates (the symptoms of such poisoning are similar to ordinary alcohol intoxication); unfortunately, no one is safe from buying low-quality alcohol, even in a good store. If after alcohol you suddenly feel bad or the condition of everyone who drank from the same bottle has worsened, call an ambulance. Before the arrival of doctors, you should try to induce vomiting in order to prevent toxic substances from entering the blood.
Burns to the hands and face as a result of the use of fireworks, firecrackers, sparklers, firecrackers are another common cause of emergency visits to the doctor. If the packaging indicates that the pyrotechnics are intended for outdoor use, do not try to light them indoors. It is important not only to choose certified products when buying and check that there are no dents or damage on the items, but also to observe safety precautions: cases when firecrackers explode in your hands, burning sparks get into your eyes, and a sudden explosion causes hearing impairment are not uncommon.
If the fireworks do not work, wait at least five minutes before approaching it: the wick can smolder and it is very difficult to predict the moment of launch. In addition, some pyrotechnic products can be triggered by heat or even friction, so never carry them in your pockets. We have already told you how to properly cool the affected area in case of a burn – keep it under running cold water for at least fifteen minutes. If your eyes or airways are damaged, you cannot do without the help of doctors.
Cutting your finger while cooking or unpacking a gift is a classic trauma when in a hurry. In this case, it will not be superfluous to play it safe – to wear kitchen or even construction gloves if you have to open a large box. If you can’t avoid trouble, take care to disinfect the wound with hydrogen peroxide or alcohol solution, treat the area around the cut with iodine, and bandage or apply a plaster. If the blood cannot be stopped within fifteen minutes, call an ambulance: cuts on the hands and wrists may damage the nerves and tendons, and in the case of a wound in the joints, stitches may be required.
Remember about safety when you start to take apart the Christmas tree: glass toys often break into tiny, almost invisible fragments. Move away anything that can make cleaning difficult, do not go barefoot, and if the toy is broken, wipe the floor even in the far corners of the room.
Bruises and fractures
A large number of slippery surfaces (eg ice) and winter sports are the main causes of injury during this period. Even seemingly harmless sledding from a slide does not exclude the threat of collision with an obstacle or a strong blow when falling. According to the surgeon Yaroslav Lavrentyev, the use of inflatable sleds (they are also called “cheesecakes” or “tubing”) is the most dangerous winter entertainment, which often leads to the emergency room. Despite the fact that the inflatable circular chamber is able to soften the impacts of a fall and collision, during the descent, the “cheesecake” can develop high speed even on slopes with a slight incline and rotate around its axis. At the same time, it does not have a brake, so control becomes impossible. Concussion, various leg injuries, compression fractures of the spine are just some of the consequences of riding such a sled. To reduce the risk of injury, you should only go down on the “cheesecake” on specially prepared tracks, holding on to the belts on the sides.
Vladimir Shipkov notes that a frequent reason for visiting a doctor on holidays is also acute toothache as a result of a blow to the jaw area. It is not difficult to get this type of injury while riding, for example, snowmobile, snowboarding or skiing without following safety rules. Extreme driving of a snowmobile often turns into a collision with obstacles hidden under the snow – stones or stumps – at speed. In such cases, we can already talk about a threat to life – and it is possible to save it thanks to a helmet and equipment that protects the spine. But even if you are not fond of extreme sports, it is worth remembering the risks of icy conditions and being able to properly group when falling: do not put straight arms forward, press your chin to your chest, do not land on your tailbone and always try to roll onto your side. Comfortable clothes, winter shoes with non-slip ribbed soles and the ability to take your time will help reduce the risk of falling .
Orthopedic traumatologist Yuri Glazkov draws attention to the fact that in case of a head impact, possible dislocations and fractures, it is necessary to assess the symptoms as soon as possible, and if the victim loses consciousness, complains of nausea or his limb is deformed, call an ambulance. It happens that a person fell and bumped the next day after a stormy celebration – and further dizziness with nausea is attributed to a hangover ; the cause may be a concussion. Therefore, if you are not sure about the causes of the ailment, the right decision would be to see a doctor.