It occurs with violations of embryogenesis and contains elements of ectoderm. A round-shaped formation of various sizes, with clear boundaries, soft elastic consistency. Content – fat or jelly-like masses with an unpleasant odor, often containing hair. It is localized in various parts of the face and neck. When localized on the neck, it can reach large sizes. The inner surface of the cyst looks like skin and is lined with stratified squamous epithelium.
Root cyst (apical, pericarp, periapical ). It makes up 80% of all cysts. It occurs due to a chronic inflammatory process in the periodontium.
Nasal canal cyst
It develops from areas of the epithelium that split in the embryonic period. It is localized in the anterior sections of the alveolar process of the upper jaw, above the incisors, sometimes pushing the roots of the latter. Unlike the root cyst, the pulp of the incisors does not change.
Surgical treatment. Cystectomy is performed from the vestibule of the oral cavity.
The presence of a cavity in the jaw associated with tooth pathology. Clinically distinguish between 2 types of paradental cysts: radicular (apical, periapical , pericarp) and follicular ( pericorical ).
Etiology. Inflammatory origin, develops from dental granulomas. The destructive process in the tissues around the top of the tooth leads to the appearance of small cavities, which, merging, form a cystic cavity, most often lined with squamous epithelium. The cavity is filled with a viscous fluid containing cholesterol crystals. The clinical picture is similar to that of the follicular cyst and manifests itself in the form of bulging of the mucous membrane of the vestibule of the oral cavity in the upper or lower jaw. When the cortical plate is thinning, a “parchment” crunch is noted. Radiologically, the cyst has clear boundaries, often rounded in shape with the tips of the roots protruding into its cavity. The diagnosis is straightforward. Differential diagnosis is carried out with follicular cysts, sometimes with adamantinomas and osteoblastoclastomas in the presence of the last monocystic cavities. The course is long, often asymptomatic. When a secondary infection is attached, abscess formation is possible . Large cysts can lead to spontaneous fracture of the lower jaw. Surgical treatment, including 2 types of surgery – cystectomy and cystotomy . The forecast is favorable.
It occurs mainly on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity (lower lip). It occurs due to the difficulty of the outflow of secretion from the glandular secretory organs.
With a trauma to the mucous membrane of the lips, mucus from the small alveolar glands is disrupted, which leads to the formation of a retention cyst. When the ducts of the sublingual salivary glands are blocked, cysts of the bottom of the oral cavity of large sizes are formed – wounds.
The clinical picture. A rounded formation in the capsule, with a thin membrane, towering above the mucous membrane. Color – transparent, sometimes with a bluish tint, contains mucus. Surgical treatment – cyst husking.
It occurs due to trauma and subsequent hemorrhage in the subcutaneous fat layer, much less often in the bones of the lower jaw.
Hemorrhage in these tissues leads to the formation of a cavity lined with a connective tissue capsule. With the formation of a fistula, the growth of the integumentary epithelium lining the cyst wall is possible.
Follicular cyst ( okolokoronkovaya )
It occurs due to cystic degeneration of the remains of the dental follicle in the initial phase of the formation of enamel. Always contains normal teeth or a few of their primordia.
Radiologically manifested as a rounded or oval shape, the focus of rarefaction of bone tissue with clear contours and a thin strip of compacted bone tissue around the cavity. In its lumen, the coronal part of the formed tooth or tooth germ is projected at different stages of development. Most often, follicular cysts are associated with fangs of the upper jaw, less often with molars and upper incisors.
The clinical picture. For a long time, the course is asymptomatic, sometimes cysts can reach large sizes. In this case, the cortical plate of the jaw is thinned, which manifests itself in the form of deformation and bulging of the bone from the side of the vestibule of the oral cavity. On palpation of a thinned area of the bone, the presence of a crunch is characteristic ( Dupuytren’s symptom ). Germination of a cyst in the maxillary sinus and nasal cavity remains clinically unnoticed for a long time, however, clear boundaries of the bulging into the lumen of these organs are determined radiologically. Unlike a radicular cyst, in which a causative tooth is usually determined, a follicular cyst can be located in that part of the jaw where a teething delay is observed.
Cystic formations of the jaws are divided into paradental (root and follicular), traumatic, epidermoid, and others.
Etiology. Cyst of the nasal canal; Cyst of the peridental . The cyst is traumatic. The cyst is follicular. The epidermoid cyst .