Sharp pains, half-open mouth, salivation, slurred speech, chewing disorders, swallowing, face shape changes, malocclusion, abnormal mobility of fragments, impaired cranial nerve function, hematoma, painful swelling, facial swelling.
Violation of bone integrity is determined on x-ray taken in two projections.
Each type of fracture of individual bones of the face has its own clinical features, depending on the action of the applied force, the degree of displacement of the fragments.
Complications of fractures of the bones of the face
Immediate at the scene – acute respiratory failure and asphyxiation, bleeding, shock, collapse, air embolism, primary disfigurement of the face, violation of the act of chewing and swallowing. Early – at the stages of evacuation or in a medical institution – the consequences of damage to blood vessels (early bleeding, hematomas, hemorrhages, hemosinusitis ), nerves; increasing respiratory failure with airway patency; paranasal sinuses and cavities (subcutaneous emphysema of the face); acute inflammatory complications (suppuration of the hematoma, abscesses, phlegmon). Late – secondary bleeding, bronchopulmonary complications, traumatic osteomyelitis, sinusitis, erysipelas, gas and putrefactive infection, tetanus, aspiration pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, traumatic cysts, aneurysms, contractures, abnormal fusion of bone fragments, ankylosis, malignancy, spoon development of excess bone callus, nerve damage, diplopia, salivary fistulas and cysts, scars, disfigurement secondary, emotional and mental disorders. It is generally accepted that the causes of late complications are: 1) defects in soft tissues and bones with severe damage to the maxillofacial region; 2) errors in the provision of specialized dental care and patient care; 3) a decrease in the overall reactivity of the body; 4) the development of pathogenic microflora of the oral cavity.
Fractures of the alveolar process
Alveolar fractures in the appendix are more common in the upper jaw, often accompanied by fractures or dislocations of the teeth. In children, follicles of permanent teeth may be damaged or infected.
Clinical picture : malocclusion, mucosal ruptures along the fracture line, hemorrhages in the area of the vestibule of the oral cavity, pathological mobility of the alveolar ridge, difficulty in chewing and speaking, fractures and dislocations of teeth. X-ray examination complements the diagnosis.
Treatment. At the level of the roots of damaged teeth, fragments of the process along with the teeth should be removed, since their engraftment is impossible. The sharp bony edges smooth and cover with flaps of the mucous membrane. When the fracture line passes above the roots of the teeth, the fragments are repositioned and fixed to the dental arch with an aluminum or steel splint, or with a quick-hardening plastic mouth guard (splint).
Fractures of the teeth – damage to the tooth with a violation of the integrity of its crown or root part. A tooth injury can be accompanied by destruction of the tooth socket, fractures of the alveolar bone or jaw. According to the classification of G. M. Ivashchenko, they distinguish: 1) incomplete fractures (without pulp opening): enamel and dentin cracks, marginal crown fracture with enamel separation, marginal crown fracture with enamel and dentine separation; 2) complete fractures (with opening of the pulp): open and closed neck of the tooth, root, apex of the root; 3) dislocation of the tooth from the socket, tooth separation along with the edge of the alveolar process; 4) indentation of teeth.
Zaba fracture clinic
Pain in the tooth during trauma, aggravated by exertion (acute traumatic pulpitis), hemorrhage in the pulp of the tooth causes a pink color of its crown, tooth mobility, crown defects. An accurate diagnosis and the degree of damage to the root of the tooth is established after an X-ray examination, which should be carried out so that the tooth is visible throughout. A symptom of a tooth fracture is the presence of an enlightenment strip of different widths, sometimes displacement of fragments.
Zab fracture treatment
The amount of help is determined by the level and nature of the fracture. If enamel and dentin are damaged without opening the pulp of the tooth, the sharp edges of the crown should be sanded . In case of a crown fracture with dissection of the pulp, the latter must be removed under anesthesia, fill the root canal of the tooth and restore the anatomical shape of the tooth (crown, pin tooth). With fractures of the roots of the teeth, the possibility of preserving the tooth is determined individually. For this purpose, fixing tires made of aluminum or steel wire or quick-drying plastic mouth guards are used. With significant damage, the teeth are removed.
Dental fractures in children
Frontal teeth of the upper jaw (milk and permanent) are most often fractured.
Treatment depends on the age of the child, the general condition, the degree of formation of the roots of the teeth, the clinical picture.
At the age of 2.5 years, when the formation of the roots of deciduous teeth has not yet been completed, fractures are very rare; more often there are dislocations or immersion of a tooth in a hole, i.e., broken-in fractures. In cases of loss at this age of a number of milk incisors, their replacement with removable children’s prostheses is indicated. At the age of 2.5 to 4.5 years, the preservation of milk incisors, their treatment and restoration of the crown part with fillings made of quick-hardening plastic is recommended. At the age of 5 to 7 years, dislocations of temporary teeth are observed more often than fractures. The teeth are removed without subsequent prosthetics.