Synovial sarcoma of the head and neck is a solitary tumor, falsely encapsulated. On the neck it is often localized in the upper third, on its lateral surface, it is determined under the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Microscopically – reflects the features of the synovial membrane. The most characteristic is the formation of gaps or cavities of various sizes lined with cubic or cylindrical cells. Four types of synovial sarcoma are distinguished: 1) squamous with the formation of cavities containing mucus-like masses; 2) consisting of cells resembling the epithelium, with the formation of “glandular” or alveolar structures; 3) consisting mainly of spindle-shaped cells; 4) polymorphic cell type. The 1st and 2nd types repeat the structure of synovial sarcoma, the 3rd and 4th – spindle cell and polymorphic (they are less differentiated). Clinically, a tumor has a progressive or rapid growth rate. The tumor in the initial stages is painless, but with an increase in size and the involvement of neighboring anatomical structures, a pain syndrome appears. Synovial sarcoma is characterized by a high percentage of relapses (up to 65%). Regional metastases are detected in 23-24% of cases, distant – in 40%. Treatment – surgical, combined or complex. Used circuit polychemotherapy : CyVADic , CyVADact , ASORs derivatives platinum.
Hemangiomas of the head and neck
Hemangiomas of the head and neck are mature tumors consisting of newly formed blood vessels located in the connective tissue stroma. In the neck, they have the appearance of a rounded or ovoid node of various sizes and densities, diffusely propagating along the neurovascular bundle on the neck or in the form of a “flat cake”, test-like vascular bundle in the supraclavicular region. In some areas of the tumor, there may be more dense inclusions (fibrosis, phlebitis). In the section, the tumor has a spongy structure and is red in color. The microscopic structure was not distinguished from hemangiomas of other localizations. The treatment is surgical.
The pathological position of the head with limited mobility is typical, which cannot be eliminated not only actively, but also passively.
Etiology of arthrogenic torticollis
The cause of this pathology is mainly malformations in the cervical spine, for example, sphenoid deformity of the vertebra or damage to the intervertebral disc, which can also be a consequence of trauma.
Clinic of arthrogenic torticollis
Tilt the head to the side; scoliosis of the cervical spine, the neck can be shortened. Mobility is reduced, especially, for example, with synostosis of the vertebrae. Deformations of the cervical spine are determined using x-ray examination.
Arthrogenic torticollis treatment
Etiological treatment is impossible and usually not required, since there are no complaints, and worsening of the condition with this pathology is rare. With the development of secondary compensatory curvature of the spine (compare with congenital scoliosis), the measures described above are necessary. For symptomatic effects on long-term effects (degenerative changes), orthopedic agents can be used to fix or reduce stress.